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The OECD estimated in 2007 that capital held offshore amounted to between trillion and trillion, making up approximately 6–8% of total global investments under management. Department of Treasury estimated that in 2011 the Caribbean Banking Centers, which include Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Netherlands Antilles and Panama, held almost trillion dollars in United States debt. Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported that 83 of the 100 largest U. publicly traded corporations and 63 of the 100 largest contractors for the U. federal government were maintaining subsidiaries in countries generally considered havens for avoiding taxes.A more recent study by Gabriel Zucman of the London School of Economics estimated the amount of global cross-border wealth held in tax havens (including the Netherlands and Luxembourg as tax havens for this purpose) at US.6 trillion, of which US.46 trillion was held in Switzerland alone. Similarly, Desai, Foley and Hines in the Journal of Public Economics found that: "in 1999, 59% of U. firms with significant foreign operations had affiliates in tax haven countries", although they did not define "significant" for this purpose. The GAO did not review the companies' transactions to independently verify that the subsidiaries helped the companies reduce their tax burden, but said only that historically the purpose of such subsidiaries is to cut tax costs.The only thing that can be done is picking a country that has the smallest rates on these taxes (or even no such taxes at all) before buying any real estate.Individuals or corporate entities may establish shell subsidiaries or move themselves to areas with reduced or no taxation levels relative to typical international taxation.This creates a situation of tax competition among jurisdictions.Different jurisdictions may be havens for different types of taxes, and for different categories of people or companies.The term most commonly refers to those countries or jurisdictions that have a low-tax or no-tax regime or which offer generous tax incentives.
A 2012 report by the British Tax Justice Network estimated that between US trillion and trillion is sheltered from taxes in unreported tax havens worldwide.A tax haven is a jurisdiction that offers favorable tax or other conditions to its taxpayers as relative to other jurisdictions.There is no generally accepted definition of what renders a country or jurisdiction a tax haven, but activities that are commonly associated with such places range far beyond tax.The report's author indicated that this hidden money results in a "huge" lost tax revenue—a "black hole" in the economy—and many countries would become creditors instead of being debtors if the money of their tax evaders would be taxed.The Tax Justice Network estimated that global tax revenue lost in 2012 to tax havens is between US0 billion and 5 billion per year, assuming a 3% capital gains rate, a 30% capital gains tax rate, and trillion to trillion hidden in tax havens worldwide.